DESCRIPTION: Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languagesone of the four living members of the East Slavic languages, and part of the larger Balto-Slavic branch. Written examples of Old East Slavonic are attested from the 10th century onward. It is the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages and the largest native language in Europe, with million speakers in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus.Maggie Murphy: Hahnaaha this funny one
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Most citizens consider their mother tongue to be Russian. The number of secondary school graduates dropped by about 50 percent between. Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russian distinguishes between consonant phonemes with palatal secondary articulation and those without, the so-called soft and hard sounds. Almost. She walks around seemingly counting every last precious second she is . Russian mother hands over her daughter to teacher to raise for £
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Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languagesone of the four living members of the East Slavic languages, and part of the larger Balto-Slavic branch. Written examples of Old East Slavonic are attested from the 10th century onward. It is the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages and the largest native language in Europe, with million speakers in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus.
Russian is the eighth most spoken language in the world by number of native speakers and the seventh by total number of speakers. Russian is also the third most widespread language on the Internet after English and Germanrespectively. Russian distinguishes between consonant phonemes with palatal secondary articulation and those without, the so-called soft and hard sounds.
Almost every consonant has a hard or a soft counterpart, and the distinction is a prominent feature of the language. Another important aspect is the reduction of unstressed vowels. Russian is an East Slavic language of the wider Indo-European family. It is a lineal [ citation needed ] descendant of the language used in Kievan Rus'a loose conglomerate of East Slavic tribes from the late
Russian as mother or secondary to the mid 13th centuries.
From the point of view of spoken languageits closest relatives are UkrainianBelarusianand Rusyn the other three languages in the East Slavic languages. In many places in eastern and southern Ukraine and throughout Belarusthese languages are spoken interchangeably, and in certain areas traditional bilingualism resulted in language mixtures such as Surzhyk in eastern Ukraine and Trasianka in Belarus.
An East Slavic Old Novgorod dialectalthough vanished during the 15th or 16th century, is sometimes considered to have played a significant role in the formation of modern Russian.
Also Russian has notable lexical similarities with Bulgarian due to a common Church Slavonic influence on both Russian as mother or secondary, as well as because of later interaction in the 19th and 20th centuries, although Bulgarian grammar Russian as mother or secondary markedly from Russian. The vocabulary mainly abstract and literary wordsprinciples of word formations, and, to some extent, inflections and literary style of Russian have been also influenced by Church Slavonica developed and partly russified form of the South Slavic Old Church Slavonic language used by the Russian Orthodox Church.
However, the East Slavic forms have tended to be used exclusively in the various dialects that are experiencing a rapid decline. In some cases, both the East Slavic and the Church Slavonic forms are in use, with many different meanings. For details, see Russian phonology and History of the Russian language. Over the course of centuries, the vocabulary and literary style of Russian have also been influenced by Western and Central European languages such as GreekLatinPolishDutchGermanFrenchItalian and English and to a lesser extent the languages to the south and the east: UralicTurkic  Persian  and Arabicas well as Hebrew.
According to the Defense Language Institute in Monterey, CaliforniaRussian is classified as a level III language in Russian as mother or secondary of learning difficulty for native English speakers, requiring approximately 1, hours of immersion instruction to achieve intermediate fluency. It arose in the beginning of the 18th century with the modernization reforms of the Russian state under the rule of Peter the Greatand developed from the Moscow Middle or Central Russian dialect substratum under the influence of some of the previous century's Russian chancellery language.
Mikhail Lomonosov first compiled a normalizing grammar book in ; in the Russian Academy 's first explanatory Russian dictionary appeared.
During the end of the 18th and 19th centuries, a period known as the "Golden Age", the grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation of the Russian language was stabilized and standardized, and it became the nationwide literary language; meanwhile, Russia's world-famous literature flourished. Until the 20th century, the language's spoken form was the language of only the upper noble classes and urban population, as Russian peasants from the countryside continued to speak in their own dialects.
By the midth century, such dialects were forced out with the introduction of the compulsory education system that was established by the Soviet government. Inthere were Therefore, the Russian language is the 7th largest in the world by number of speakersafter English, Mandarin, Hindi-Urdu, Spanish, and Arabic. Russian is one of the six official languages of the United Nations.
Education in Russian is
Russian as mother or secondary a popular choice for both Russian as a second language RSL and native speakers in Russia as well as many of the former Soviet republics.
Russian is still seen as an important language for children to learn in most of the former Soviet republics. In EstoniaRussian is spoken by In LatviaRussian is officially considered a foreign language.
In Lithuania is not official, but it still retains the function of a lingua franca. In MoldovaRussian is considered to be the language of inter-ethnic communication under a Soviet-era law. According to the census in RussiaRussian language skills were indicated by million people In UkraineRussian is seen as a language of inter-ethnic communication, and a minority language, under the Constitution of In the 20th century, Russian was a mandatory language taught in the schools of the members of the old Warsaw Pact and in other countries that used to be satellites of the USSR.
Significant Russian-speaking groups also exist in Western Europe. These have been fed by several waves of immigrants since the beginning of the 20th century, each with its own flavor of language. In ArmeniaRussian has no official status, but it is recognized as a minority language under the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities.
In AzerbaijanRussian has no official status, but is a lingua franca of the country. In ChinaRussian has no official status, but it is spoken by the small Russian communities in the Northeastern Heilongjiang province. In GeorgiaRussian has no official status, but it is recognized as a minority language under the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities.
In KazakhstanRussian is not a state language, but according to article 7 of the Constitution of Kazakhstan its usage enjoys equal status to that of the Kazakh language in state and local administration. In KyrgyzstanRussian is an official language per article 5 of the Constitution of Kyrgyzstan. In TajikistanRussian is the language of inter-ethnic communication under the Constitution of Tajikistan and is permitted in official documentation. In TurkmenistanRussian lost its status as the official lingua franca in InRussian was the most widely taught foreign language in Mongolia and was compulsory in Year 7 onward as a second foreign language in Russian is also spoken in Israel.
The number of native Russian-speaking Israelis numbers around 1. See also Russian language in Israel. Russian is also spoken as a second language by a small number of people in Afghanistan. The language was first introduced in North America when Russian explorers voyaged into Alaska and claimed it for Russia during Russian as mother or secondary 18th century. Although most Russian colonists left after the United States bought the land ina handful stayed and preserved the Russian language in this region to this day, although only a few elderly speakers of this unique dialect are left.
In a number of locations they issue their own newspapers, and live in ethnic enclaves especially the generation of immigrants who started arriving in the early s. Afterward, the influx from the countries of the former Soviet Union changed the statistics somewhat, with ethnic Russians and Ukrainians immigrating along with some more Russian Jews and Central Asians. According to the United States Censusin Russian was the primary language spoken in the homes of overindividuals living in the United States.
Russian is one of the official or has similar status and interpretation must be provided into Russian of the following:. The Russian language is also one of two official languages aboard the International Space Station — NASA astronauts who serve alongside Russian cosmonauts usually take Russian language courses.
This practice goes back to the Apollo-Soyuz mission, which first flew in In March it was announced that Russian is now the second-most used language on the Internet after English. People use the Russian language on 5. Russian is used not only on The websites of former Soviet Union nations also high levels of Russian: However, Russian is the sixth-most used language on the top 1, sites, behind EnglishChineseFrenchGerman and Japanese.
Russian is a rather homogeneous language, in terms of dialectal variation, due to the early political centralization under Moscow's rule, compulsory education, mass migration from rural to urban areas in the 20th century, as well as other factors. The standard language is used in written and spoken form almost everywhere in the country, from Kaliningrad and Saint Petersburg in the West to Vladivostok and Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky in the East, notwithstanding the enormous distance in between.
Despite leveling afterespecially in matters of vocabulary and phonetics, a number of dialects still exist in Russia. Some linguists divide the dialects of Russian into two primary regional groupings, "Northern" and "Southern", with Moscow lying on the zone of transition between the two. Others divide the language into three groupings, NorthernCentral or Middle and Southernwith Moscow lying in the
Russian as mother or secondary region.
Dialectology within Russia recognizes dozens of smaller-scale variants. The dialects often show distinct and non-standard features of pronunciation and intonation, vocabulary and grammar. Some of these are relics of ancient usage now completely discarded by the standard language. Among the first to study Russian dialects was Lomonosov in the 18th century.
In the 19th, Vladimir Dal compiled the first dictionary that included dialectal vocabulary. Detailed mapping of Russian dialects began at the turn of the 20th century. Russian is written using a Cyrillic alphabet. The Russian alphabet consists of 33 letters. The following table gives their upper case forms, along with IPA values for each letter's typical sound:.
While these older letters have been abandoned at one time or another, they may be used in this and related articles. Because of many technical restrictions in computing and also because of the unavailability of Cyrillic keyboards abroad, Russian is often transliterated using the Latin alphabet. Once commonly used by the majority of those living outside Russia, transliteration is being used less frequently by Russian-speaking typists in favor of the extension of Unicode character encodingwhich fully incorporates the Russian alphabet.
The Russian alphabet has many systems of character encoding. KOI8-R was designed by the Soviet government and was intended to serve as the standard encoding. This encoding was and still is widely used in UNIX-like operating systems.
All the obsolete 8-bit encodings Russian as mother or secondary rarely used in the communication protocols and text-exchange data formats, having been mostly replaced with UTF A number of encoding conversion applications were developed. In addition to the modern Russian alphabet, Unicode and thus UTF-8 encodes the Early Cyrillic alphabet which is very similar to the Greek alphabetas well as all other Slavic and non-Slavic but Cyrillic-based alphabets.
Russian spelling is reasonably phonemic in practice. It is in fact a balance among phonemics, morphology, etymology, and grammar; and, like that of most living languages, has its share of and controversial points. A number of rigid spelling rules introduced between the s and s have been responsible for the former whilst trying to eliminate the The current spelling follows the major reform ofand the final codification of An update proposed in the late s has met a hostile reception, and has not been formally adopted.
The punctuation, originally based on Byzantine Greekwas in the 17th and 18th centuries reformulated on the French and German models. For example, it is used to distinguish between otherwise identical words, especially when context does not make it obvious: Stress marks are mandatory in lexical dictionaries and books for children or Russian learners.
The phonological system of Russian is inherited from Common Slavonic ; it underwent considerable modification in the early historical period before being largely settled around the year The language possesses five vowels or six, under the St.
Getting out of the friendzone?A second increase in the tempo of change taking place in the s . Figure Trends in Mean Age of Mother and Total Fertility Rate in Russia, -. Russian mothers confidently walk outdoors with newborns even in subzero education, language secondary schools, and Philippine nannies..
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In Russia the state provides most education services, regulating education through the Sacred calling of Education and Realm. Regional authorities regulate improvement within their jurisdictions within the prevailing framework of federal laws. Russia's impairment on education has grown from 2.
Before the course of school training in the Soviet Weld lasted 10 years, but at the end of an year course officially came into operation. Erudition in state-owned secondary schools is free; first tertiary university level education is free with reservations: Highest rates of tertiary enlightenment
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- Education in Russia - Wikipedia
- Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russian distinguishes between consonant phonemes with palatal secondary articulation and those without, the so-called soft and hard sounds. Almost.
- In Russia the state provides most education services, regulating education through the Ministry . (nursery, age 1 to 3) and kindergarten (age 3 to 7) service in urban areas, relieving working mothers from daytime childcare needs. Eleven-year secondary education in Russia is compulsory since September 1, Russian mothers confidently walk outdoors with newborns even in subzero education, language secondary schools, and Philippine nannies.
- Russian language - Wikipedia
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