The sympathetic nervous system is critical in maintaining the normal physiological function of the heart. Its dysfunction in pathological states may exacerbate the...
Penetrate fibers sympathetic Cardiac nerve
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Cardiac electrophysiology is regulated by the autonomic nervous system ANS [ 1 ]. The ANS receives continuous input from the heart, integrates them, and effector signals are delivered to the heart to maintain or alter cardiac function. The initiation and maintenance of arrhythmias have been tightly linked to actions and perturbation of ANS function [ 2 ]. In particular, increased sympathetic tone is associated with arrhythmogenesis, while increased parasympathetic tone is felt to be protective. As such, extensive investigation has been dedicated to the anatomic, physiologic and biochemical factors involved in the regulation of cardiac function by the sympathetic SNS and parasympathetic nervous systems.
The cardiac autonomic nervous system consists of 2 branches—the sympathetic and the parasympathetic systems—that work in a delicately tuned, yet opposing fashion in the heart. This extrinsic control mechanism can dominate intrinsic regulatory mechanisms that modulate heart rate and cardiac output. These branches differ in their neurotransmitters norepinephrine and acetylcholine and exert stimulatory or inhibitory effects on target tissue via adrenergic and muscarinic receptors. Stimulation of the sympathetic branch exerts facilitatory effects on function, increasing heart rate and myocardial contractility, whereas the stimulation of the parasympathetic branch exerts inhibitory effects that decrease heart rate and contractility.❿
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Penetrate fibers Cardiac nerve sympathetic
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The medulla , located in the brainstem above the spinal cord, is a major site in the brain for regulating autonomic nerve outflow to the heart and blood vessels, and is particularly important for short-term feedback regulation of arterial pressure. The medulla contains cell bodies for the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system - sympathetic and parasympathetic. Postganglionic efferent fibers from the ganglia travel to the heart and vasculature where they synapse at their target sites. The activity of the medullary neurons is modulated by input from peripheral sensors and from other brain regions. The nucleus tractus solitarius NTS of the medulla receives sensory input from different systemic and central receptors e.